Understanding the Degradation Mechanisms of a High Temperature PEMFC Stack and Optimization of the Individual Components

DEMSTACK
Project Information
Framework Programme: 
FP7
Call for proposals: 
2012
Application area: 
Stationary power production and CHP
Logo: 

The activities of the DeMStack project will be on the stack optimization and construction based on the high temperature MEA technology of ADVENT S.A. and its long term stability testing in combination with a fuel processor. DeMStack aims to enhance the lifetime and reduce the cost of the overall HT PEMFC technology by integrating promising, already developed materials for electrodes and membranes in an existing stack design. By understanding the fundamentals of the failure mechanisms, we can improve components, and design and develop system approaches to mitigate the failures. The strategy aims at improvements based on degradation studies and materials development carried out in previous and ongoing projects (FCH JU DEMMEA 245156) so that they will lead to a reliable cost-effective product that fulfils all prerequisites for relevant field uses.

These improvements cope with degradation issues related to catalyst utilization, reformate feed contaminants, uniform diffusivity and distribution of reacting gases in the catalytic layer, pinhole development due to local high current density spots, H3PO4 acid depletion and distribution within the MEA, startup-stop and thermal cycles. The ultimate aim of DeMStack is to deliver HT PEMFC components for operation temperatures at 180oC and up to 200oC. Mainly optimized long lasting polymer electrolytes, stable Pt based electrocatalysts with minimal Pt loads and effective architectures of flow fields on bipolar plates will be explored.

DeMStack will design, manufacture and test under variable conditions a highly efficient, low-cost HT PEMFC 1 kW stack prototype constructed from the optimized components. A fuel processor will also be constructed, operating on natural gas or LPG, which will be combined and integrated with the fuel cell stack. The robustness of the stack, the simplicity of BoP, the operational stability and the user friendly operation of the integrated system into a commercially reliable product, will be demonstrated.

Project details
Project reference: 
325368
Topic: 
SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.1 - Cell and stack degradation mechanisms and methods to achieve cost reduction and lifetime enhancements & SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.5 - System level proof of concept for stationary power and CHP fuel cell systems at a representative scale
Contract type: 
Collaborative Project
Start date: 
Wednesday, May 1, 2013
End date: 
Monday, October 31, 2016
Duration: 
36 months (originally), extended to 42 months
Project cost: 
€ 2,576,615
Project funding: 
€ 1,495,680
Coordinator: 

FOUNDATION FOR RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY HELLAS, Greece 

Contact: 
Ms. Maria Daletou
Contact email: 
Other participating organisations: 
Organisation Country
FUNDACION CIDETEC Spain
VYSOKA SKOLA CHEMICKO-TECHNOLOGICKA V PRAZE Czech Republic
ADVANCED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES AE EREUNAS & ANAPTYXIS YLIKON & PROIONTONANANEOSIMON PIGON ENERGEIAS & SYNAFON SYMVOULEFTIKON Y PIRESION*ADVEN     Greece
JRC-JOINT RESEARCH CENTRE- EUROPEAN COMMISSION Belgium
ELVIO ANONYMI ETAIREIA SYSTIMATON PARAGOGIS YDROGONOU KAI ENERGEIAS Greece
Prototech AS Norway
Patents and Publications
Patents: 
GR 20110100058 A, ADVENT S.A., University of Patras, FORTH/ICE-HT, "CROSS-LINKED OR NON-CROSS-LINKED AROMATIC COPOLYMERIC PROTON-CONDUCTING ELECTROLYTES FOR POLYMERIC MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS"
US2012202129, Advent Technologies (GR), "CROSSLINKED OR NON-CROSSLINKED AROMATIC (CO)POLYMERS AS PROTON CONDUCTORS FOR USE IN HIGH TEMPERATURE PEM FUEL CELLS"
Publications: 
Konstantinia D. Papadimitrioua, Maria Geormezi, Stylianos G. Neophytides, Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Membranes Science 25/01/2013, 1-9, "Covalent cross linking in phosphoric acid of pyridine based aromatic polyethers bearing side double bonds for use in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells"
Christina I. Morfopoulou, Aikaterini K. Andreopoulou, Maria K. Daletou, Stylianos G. Neophytides and Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Materials Chemistry 07/12/2012, 1613-1622, "Cross linked high temperature polymer electrolytes through oxadiazole bond formation and their applications in HT PEM fuel cells"
Sebastian Kaserer, Christoph Rakousky, Julia Melke, Christina Roth, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 28/04/2013, -, "Design of a reference electrode for high temperature PEM fuel cells"
Alfonso Crespo-Yapur, Antoine Bonnefont,Rolf Schuster, Katharina Krischer, Elena R. Savinova, ChemPhysChem 01/03/2013, 1117–1121, "Cooperative behaviour of Pt microelectrodes during CO bulk electrooxidation"
Ioannis Kalamaras, Maria K. Daletou, Stylianos G. Neophytides, Joannis K. Kallitsis, Journal of Membranes Science 22/05/2012, 42-50, "Thermal crosslinking of aromatic polyethers bearing pyridine groups for use as high temperature polymer electrolytes"
M. Geormezi, V. Deimede, J.K. Kallitsisa, S. Neophytides, Journal of Membranes Science 02/01/2012, 57-66, "Polymer blends based on copolymers bearing both side and main chain pyridine units as proton exchange membranes for high temperature fuel cells"
Sebastian Kaserer, Keegan M. Caldwell, David E. Ramaker and Christina Roth, Journal of Physical Chemistry C 01/03/2013, 6210–6217, "Analyzing the Influence of H3PO4 as Catalyst Poison in High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells Using in-operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy"
P.S. Ruvinskiy, A. Bonnefont, E.R. Savinova, Electrochimica Acta 03/04/2012, 174–186, "3D ordered layers of vertically aligned carbon nanofilaments as a model approach to study electrocatalysis on nanomaterials"
Pavel S. Ruvinskiy, Antoine Bonnefont, Cuong Pham-Huu and Elena R. Savinova, Langmuir 14/06/2011, 9018–9027, "Using Ordered Carbon Nanomaterials for Shedding Light on the Mechanism of the Cathodic Oxygen Reduction Reaction"
I. Kalamaras, M. K. Daletou, V. G. Gregoriou, J. K. Kallitsis, Fuel Cells 17/11/2011, 921-931, "Sulfonated aromatic polyethers containing pyridine units as electrolytes for high temperature fuel cells"
A. Orfanidi, M.K. Daletou, S.G. Neophytides, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 22/06/2011, 379-389, "Preparation and characterization of Pt on modified multi-wall carbon nanotubes to be used as electrocatalysts for high temperature fuel cell applications"
Christina Morfopoulou, Aikaterini K. Andreopoulou, Joannis K. Kallitsis, Polymer Chemistry 09/08/2011, 4325–4334, "The Effect of Structural Variations on Aromatic Polyethers for High-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells"
Pavel S. Ruvinskiy, Antoine Bonnefont, Maryam Bayati and Elena R. Savinova, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 08/09/2010, 15207-15216, "Mass transport effects in CO bulk electrooxidation on Pt nanoparticles supported on vertically aligned carbon nanofilaments"
P.S. Ruvinskiy, A. Bonnefont, M. Houllé, C. Pham-Huu, E.R. Savinova, Electrochimica Acta 18/01/2010, 3245–3256, "Preparation, testing and modeling of three-dimensionally ordered catalytic layers for electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions"
Pavel S. Ruvinskiy, Antoine Bonnefont, Elena R. Savinova, Electrocatalysis 13/04/2011, 123-133, "Further insight into the oxygen reduction reaction on Pt nanoparticles supported on spatially structured catalytic layers"
Konstantinia D. Papadimitriou, Fotis Paloukis, Stylianos G. Neophytides and Joannis K. Kallitsis, Macromolecules 18/05/2011, 4942–4951, "Cross linking of side chain unsaturated aromatic polyethers for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications"
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